Channels of Distribution: Types, Factors

What are Channels of Distribution? Channel of distribution is mainly concerned with the physical distribution of goods and services. It is the pipeline through which products move from producer to consumer. It consists of all the middlemen who participate in the distribution of goods and services. Every small-scale entrepreneur requires a channel that can distribute

Status Relationship: Features, Symbols, Problems

Meaning of Status Relations Status relations are distinguished from power and authority relations by the fact that status is a product of judgment about where people stand in comparison with each other on some scale of judgment. There are two basic types of relationships: Status relations confirm the locational administrative relationships as distinct from the

Uncertainty Reduction: 5 Methods

What is Uncertainty Reduction? Organizations must operate in the face of uncertainty about their key resources: Human capital, raw materials, supplies, and equipment, money, and technology. Those who are able to reduce uncertainty have power in the organization. Methods for Reducing Uncertainty These are the basic ways or methods for reducing uncertainty are: Resource Control

Theories of Organizational Climate: Ouchi Framework, Peters and Waterman’s, Udai Pareek

Functions of Organizational Climate Culture to an organization is an intangible force, with far-reaching consequences. It plays several important roles in organizations. Different functions performed by culture are discussed below: Culture Gives a Sense of Identity to Its Members An organization’s culture provides a sense of identity to its members. The more clearly an organization’s

Resistance to Change in Organization

Although organizations initiate changes in order to adjust to the changes in their environments people sometimes resist them. Therefore, managers need to recognize the manifestations of resistance both in themselves and in others, if they want to be more effective in supporting change. The sources of resistance to change within organizations are classified into organizational

Power and Politics in Organizations: Definition, Difference, Sources, 9 Causes

Power and Politics in Organizations Organizations are built by the aggregation of people for some common goals, and in order to achieve these goals, people should behave in a manner specified by organizational rules, regulations, policies, and other methods, organizations try to achieve this through the process of influencing the behavior of their members. The

Creativity: Definition, Elements, Components, Creating Climate for Creativity

What is Creativity? Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others. Definition of Creativity Creativity is the ability to see new relation to reduce unusual ideas and to deviate from traditional patterns of thinking

Process of Conflict: Features, Types, Causes, Methods

What is Conflict? Conflict is any situation in which two or more parties feel themselves in opposition, It is an interpersonal process. That arises from disagreements over the goals or the methods to accomplish those goals. Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance or whenever emotional antagonisms create friction